21st century marks the first time bulk of human civilization lives in urban settlements rather than in villages. With urban population expected to surpass 80% of the global numbers by 2030, and with human population expected to reach in between 9 and 10 billion by 2050, a few thousand more new cities will have to be added worldwide in order to sustain the population increase, and the subsequent urbanization that follows. Most of the development, meanwhile, is expected to take place in developing countries, either in Africa or in Asia.
Nevertheless, as cities keep on growing, challenges remain. With overall annual incomes and costs of living rising, social inequality will imminently occur. Some people will get rich, and more of them will end up in poverty. In a string of domino effects that follow, shantytowns will form, urban patterns become addle-pate and unpredictable, and population density will spiral out of control. Solutions have been proposed, ranging from acquiring lands and routes to provide greater public access and greenbelt areas for more populace to creating mass transit public transport systems in low costs, but such ideas can only easily apply to new cities which are going to be built in the 50 years to come. And what about those huge cities which have been existent for centuries, complete with all their seemingly unsolvable problems? The challenges get even trickier.
In this TED talk, Enrique Peñalosa, former mayor of Bogota (1998-2000, pictured above), would like to give his hometown as an example how he could reform, once a sprawling, messy, and seemingly brutal metropolis into one with a more humane face.
We fought not just for space for buses, but we fought for space for people, and that was even more difficult. Cities are human habitats, and we humans are pedestrians. Just as fish need to swim or birds need to fly or deer need to run, we need to walk. There is a really enormous conflict, when we are talking about developing country cities, between pedestrians and cars. Here, what you see is a picture that shows insufficient democracy.What this shows is that people who walk are third-class citizens while those who go in carsare first-class citizens. In terms of transport infrastructure, what really makes a difference between advanced and backward cities is not highways or subways but quality sidewalks.Here they made a flyover, probably very useless, and they forgot to make a sidewalk. This is prevailing all over the world. Not even schoolchildren are more important than cars.